The Crusades Regesta


Revised Glossary (1098 – 1244)

The letters c and k (under c), i and j, and u and v have been combined. Readers should be aware that the writers of letters and even charters could be casual in their approach to orthography and the use of gender.



abbas (m.) / abbatissa (f.)  Abbot, Abbess.        

abbatia/abbacia/abbaye/abaye  (1) Religious community, often but not always

        Benedictine, defined by the fact that it is autonomous, although, unless exempt,

        subject to the diocesan bishop. (2) Village in northern Syria and Cilicia. The word

        may carry a meaning specific to the region. To a western historian it implies a

        property which was – or had been – subject to an abbey, or even, in Norman parlance,

        a parish.  

acatepan / catepan  Originally a military title, it came to be used in the Byzantine empire

        with reference to a governor, although inferior to the dux.        

accensor lampadarum  Lamp lighter.

acolitus  Acolyte.

ad ignem et focum hospitati  Settled inhabitants.

ad limina visitatio  Obligation of a bishop to report personally to the Holy See every four years.

ad seminandum et ad garetandum  Agricultural two-year rotation system, with half the land

        sown with cereals and half partly fallow [see garet] and partly sown with a

        nitrogenous crop.

ad usum et consuetudinem  According to legal practice.

advocatus/avocat  Lay protector of a church.

agareni  Muslims.

agger  Mound.

agricola  Farmer. Inhabitant of a casale. So possibly the equivalent to rusticus, villanus.

alberga/albergue/auberge  (1) Provisions owed to the lord as an element in feudal service.

        (2) Lodging in Acre for the central convent of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem.

albus  White.

amandles  Medicines.

amiratus  Admiral.

amitus  Worked silk.

anchoragia/ancoragi/anchoraticum/ancorandum  Harbour tax.

angaria  Labour services.

annona  Harvest.

ansiani  Ancients.

ἀνθρωπος λίζιος  Liegeman. Greek form of homo ligius.        

apotheca  Shop selling merchandise. See ypotecarius.

appaltus  Lease  

aquarium  Water trough.

ara  (1) Pigsty. (2) Unknown [in a reference to land ‘ubi rex facit aram].

arabus/arabis/alarabus  Arab.

aratrum  Unit of land measurement; and see carrucata.

arbor morarius  Mulberry tree.

arc  Arch.

archer  Bowman.

archidiaconus  Archdeacon.        

archiepiscopus/archipresul/archipraesul  Archbishop.                

area/aire  Threshing floor.

armenius/ermine  Armenian.

armes  Weapons.

armiger et serviens  Armsbearing sergeant.

arnesium  Harness [armour and weapons].

arrière-ban  General conscription for the needs of defence.

arsena  Arsenal. See tarsana.

artificii actor  Artisan.

asinaria  Stables beyond the northern wall of Jerusalem, where the Hospital of St John of

        Jerusalem kept its donkeys and beasts of burden.

assasini/assasi/assessini/assidei  Assassins: members of a Shi‘ite sect.

assisia/assise/assize/assisius/ascisius  (1) Law promulgated in formal circumstances by a

        ruler. (2) Rent granted out of certain revenues [thus assidenda], often as a fief-rent.

assisium  Minor cathedral benefice.

assisius  Churchman holding an assisium.

assisus  Rent overseer.

atrium  Area immediately before the entrance to a church.

auctorixator  Authoriser of a charter.

auctor muneris  Donor.        

aula  Palace.

aumonier  Almoner.

aureum  Commonly used of bisantius.

aurifaber/aurifex  Goldsmith.

auri librae  Pounds of gold.

austus aque  Water source, mouth of water pipe.

auxilium  Obligatory service of providing assistance.

avocat  Lawyer.

avunculus  Uncle.



baculum  Staff often handed over formally in the exchange of property.

bafumaria  Disused mosque. See mahomeria.

bail en emphytéose  Emphyteutic rent.

baiulatio/baillage/bailulus  (1) Office of baiulus. (2) Wardship of minors.

baiulus/bajulus/bailli/baylivus/baliuus/bailitus/balius/bailo/baill/ bailliz/bau (m.) / bauilla  (f.)  
        depended (1) Officer or agent. (2) Regent. (3) Lieutenant of absent ruler. (4). Officer in charge
        depended of a commandery of a military order.

balistarius  Crossbowman.

balneum/balnea  Bath house.

bambasi/banbacium/bombaxum  Cotton.

bancus/banca  Stall of money changer.

bannum  (1) Power of judicial enforcement. (2) Prohibition.

barbacana/berbacana/avantmurs  Barbican.

barbanus  Uncle.

barberius  Barber.

barbota  Type of ship.

barcha  Small boat.

baro [pl. barones]/baron  Baron.

beduinus/bedevinus  Bedouin.                

beneficium  Grant, especially of property.

berquilium/berchile/bechile/barquile/barchilia  Arabic birqa. Cistern.

bibliotecarius  Librarian.

bisanciorum feudum  Money fief

bisantius/byzantius/besancius  (1) Besant. A gold coin, the weight, and worth, of which

        depended on the local mint. (2) Unit of weight.

bisantius/besantius albus/besan blanc  White besant. Cypriot currency, drawing on

        Byzantine traditions.

bisantius sarracenus/sarracenatus  Saracen besant. A gold besant modelled on earlier

        Fatimid coinage, although reformed in the middle of the 13th century to remove the

        Muslim elements in the inscription.

bisantius vetus  Gold Egyptian dinar.

bisantiata  A besant’s worth.

bivium  Crossroads.

bladum/bled  Wheat.

boni viri  Honest men, prud’hommes, often with reference to members of a court. See probi


boquines  Goat skins, possibly.

bordellus  Small house, possibly a brothel.

bouteillerie  Office of butler with perquisites.

boveria/bovaria  Cattle sheds.

boves  Oxen.

brabantinus  Coin and unit of currency.

bucheria/bocherie/becaria  Meat market.

bunna  Boundary mark.

burgensis/borges/borgois  Burgess.

burgesia/borgesie/terra burgesie  Property held in burgess tenure.

burgus/bourg  Town.

busini  Candles.

buticularius/buteler/boutellier  Butler.

buza/bucce  Unit of measurement of liquid, especially wine.



caballaria  Unit of land measurement, relative to a knight’s fief or holding.

caban  Unknown. An element in the assessment of charges levied in the

        commercium of Antioch.

calamita  Unknown [in a reference to a house ‘ubi fiunt calamite’].

calcis fornax/calidus furnus  Lime kiln.

caldei  Chaldeans.

caliga ferrea  Chain mail.

cambiator/cambitor/campsor  Money changer.

camelarius  Camelteer.

camelinus  Surcoat.

camera  (1) Room, possibly also an apartment. (2) Private treasury: thus camera regia,

        holding the king’s private funds.

cameraria  Office and perquisites of camerarius.

camerarius/chambellan/chambrier  Chamberlain.

campus  (1) Field. (2) Town square.

cancellarius  Chancellor.

candela  Candle wax.

candelarius  Official in charge of candles in a church.

canna/canne  Unit of measurement of length.

cannamella/canimel/zalamellus  Sugar cane.

cannetum  Sugar cane plantation.

canonicus/chanoine  Canon of cathedral or member of an Augustinian community.

cantaria/quintaria/quintardi  Arabic qintar. Unit of measurement of quantity or weight.

cantaria et pondera et mensurae/cantarii, buzae et modii  Weights and measures.

cantor (m) / cantatrix (f)  Cathedral canon responsible for liturgical music. See precentor.

canuta/cavuta  Unknown.

canutus  Unknown.

capella  Chapel.

capellanus/chapellain  Chaplain        .

capicerius  Presbyterium or chancel: in which the altar is placed.

capitagium/capitatio/capitale redditus  Poll tax. See chevagia.

capitaneus/chevetaine  Captain.

capitulum  Chapter of cathedral canons or of a religious community.

caprarius/cabrarius  Goatherd.

caput ecclesiae  Chancel.                

carat [pl. carates]/qiratum/carctus/karacta  Arabic qirat   (1) Coin and unit of currency,

        being, in the 13th century, a 24th of a besant. See carrubla. (2) Unit of

        measurement, based on the weight of a carat/carrubla. (3) Taxation by weight.

karavenier  Officer in charge of the caravanna.

caravanna/caravanus/karavane/ karavanna/garavanna  (1) Convoy by land and sea of

        animals or ships carrying goods and merchandise. See also passagium. (2)

        Department in the hospital of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem responsible for

        storing bedclothes and utensils. (3) Department in the marshalsy of the Knights

        Templar, where warhorses were stabled and their tack and saddlery were stored and

        repaired. (4) In the later 13th century land (or sea) based military expedition of the

        brother knights of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem.

carbo  Charcoal.

carcosium  Slaughterhouse.

carcubin  Precious cloth. Unknown.

cardinalis  Cardinal.

carnarium ad ossa mortuorum  Charnel pit.

carnifex  Butcher.

carpentarius  Carpenter.

carrage/karrage/carragium/cavages  Arabic kharaj. Muslim land tax maintained by the

        Latin settlers. See also terragium, terraticum. The form cavages brings to mind the

        Cypriot poll tax of chevagia [see below], but cavages is more likely to have been a

        land, not a capitation, tax.

carrubla/karubla/carouble/carrupla/quarrobla  Alternative word for carat.

carrucae propriae  Demesne land.

carrucata/carrucha/carruca terre/carruga/carratata/cartica/cartata  Carrucate, a unit of land

        measurement,         defined by the amount that can be ploughed by a pair of oxen.

        Translated into Venetian Italian as masi. See also aratrum.

cartica greca  Greek carrucate.

carrucatae franciae/francae/francesie/liberae  Carrucates freed from usual services.

cartula  Charter.

carubius/quarubius/caroblers/karoblers  Arabic kharub. Carob tree.

carublerium/carrobletum  carob tree plantation.

casale [pl. casalia]/casella/chasel  Village settlement inhabited usually, but not always, by

        indigenous peasants.

casatus  Rural tenant.

cassarium  Meat market, possibly.

castellanus/chastellain  Castellan.

castelletum  Fort.

castellum/castrum  Castle.

casula  (1) Hut. (2) Chasuble.

casula dalmatica  Dalmatic.

casula doxi  Gilded chasuble.

catepan, see acapetan.

cathedra  Bishop’s throne.

cathena/catena/chatena/katena /chaine/chaene  (1) Urban district around a port. (2) Port

        office responsible for the taxation of ships and of imported and exported goods. (3)

        Court [cour de la chaine/cathene curia] responsible for minor maritime cases.

catholicus  Catholicos. The head of an independent church        .

cathrans/catrans  Arabic qatran. Bitumen.

cava/cavea  (1) Cave. (2) Depression in the ground. (3) Valley.

cellarium  Cellar.

cellerarius/cellerier/sellarius (m) / celleraria (f)  Cellarar.                

cementarius/cimentarius  Builder.

cenobium  Monastic community.                

census/cense/censuels/censuales  (1) The rent due on all city properties and lands held by

        burgess tenure. (2) An annual payment made to the papacy by privileged religious

        orders. (3) Tax.

cereum  (1) Wax. (2) Candle.

charruée, see carrucata.

chevagia/chevalia  Poll tax, originating in the Byzantine system, owed by peasants

        on Cyprus between the ages of 15 and 60.

chevagius  Person owing chevagia.

chevalerie  Knighthood.

chevalier  Knight.

cimeterium  Graveyard.

cingula/zona  Belt, cingula.

cisterna  Cistern.

civis  Citizen.

claperius  Monument.

claustrum  Cloistered enclosure in a religious community.

clericus/clers  Cleric.

clibanus  Bread oven.

clicha  Unit of quantity.

cliens  Dependant.

clientes belligeri  Armed dependants.        

cocus/coqus  Cook.

cognatus  Relative.

cogones  Cogs: square rigged ships of northern European design.

collatio  Tax.

collis  Hill.

coloni  (1) Farmers. (2)  Immigrants.

comes/conte (m.) / comitissa (f.)  Count, Countess.

comes palatinus  Count Palatine.

comitus  Sea captain.

commeatus vel semita  Lane.

commendator/commandeur   Commander. The title of an officer in the military orders, either
        (1) in a senior role in the central convent or (2) leading a local or ship-board community of brothers. See preceptor.

commercium/commertium/comercium/commerce/commerc  Byzantine komerkion. (1) A

        combined market and import tax, inherited from the Byzantine empire. (2) A general

        term for trade.

commodare  To pledge.

commune/communia/coumune  Commune.

communitas  Community.

conductus  Aqueduct or water channel.

confallonerius  Standard bearer.

confrater (m) [pl. confratres] / consoror (f) [pl. consorores]  Lay associate in a confraternal

        relationship with a religious order or community.

consanguineus  Relative.

consiliori  Counsellors.

constabularius/conestalle/constabilis/comestabulus/counestable  Constable.  

consuetudo [pl. consuetudines]/consuetudinaria/costuma  Custom, the word being often

        applied to customary laws or taxes. See also usus.

consul/consele  Consul.

conventus  Religious community.

conventus publicus  Public meeting.

conversus  Lay brother in a religious community, who does not have the full chapter-rights of

        a choir monk.

corba  Unit of measurement of liquid.

cordoenarius/cordarius/coriparius  Cobbler.

corvei  Labour services.

corvesarius/curvesarius/corveser/corvesier/convoisier  Leatherworker, cordwainer.

costorer  Tailor.

cours des Syriens  Courts established to deal with minor cases between Suriani.

crocea  Cope.

crucesignatus  Crusader.

cubicularius  Chamberlain. See camerarius.

cudaria  Unit of measurement.

cuffrus  Coffer.

cultellus  Knife.

cuneus  Seal matrix.

cuppa  Cup.

curator ovium  Shepherd.

curba  Unknown. Type of settlement.

curia/cort  (1) Judicial court. (2) Courtyard or courtyard building.

curia generalis  A general assembly, usually consisting of the High Court and

        representatives of the burgesses, the church, the military orders and sometimes the

        Italian communes.

curia regalis/regis/curia regni Ierosolimitane  (1) royal court. (2) High Court.

curtile/curtille/cortillus/cortile/curtilia/curtilium/curtivum/curdivum  Rustic or urban


curtis  courtyard.

custos  (1) Guardian or warden, as in titles of office [custos asinarie, custos

        helemosine, custos pauperum, custos portus, custos egrorum, custos infirmorum,

        custos operis]. (2) Curtain.

cutocothroffium  Hospital.

cyrotheca  Liturgical gloves.

cyrurgicus  Surgeon.

cysternarius  Officer in charge of a cistern.



dacita  Tax, tribute.

dapifer, see senescalcus.

datio census  Tax, customs duty.

decanus  Dean.

decima  (1) Church tithe. (2) A land rent of one tenth of produce.

demanium  Domain, demesne. See dominium.

denarius/denier  Coin or unit of currency. It rated at 34 to the besant in Latakia.

derem/derame, see dirham.

de statis, rubis et de mensuris  Weights and measures.

diaconus  Deacon.

dimi/dymi  Levy, originating the Byzantine taxation, imposed on peasants in Antioch and


dinar  Muslim gold coin, the model for the besant. 

dirham  Muslim coin, stemming from the Byzantine drachma.

dispensator  Official or agent in charge of a western agricultural settlement.

divisio  Boundary.

doctor  Teacher with a degree.

doctor clericorum  Master of a cathedral school. See magister clericorum; magister


doga  Ditch.

domesticus  Servant.

domicella  Maidservant.

domina/dame  Lady.

dominatio et ligietas  Liege lordship.

dominica in ramis palmarum  Palm Sunday.

dominium  (1) lordship. (2) Demesne land. See demanium.

dominus/domnus/dongnus/dognus  Lord.

domuncula/domumcula  Small house.

domus  (1) House. (2) Religious order. (3) Commandery of a military order.

domus convitii  Prison.

domus serice  Silk factory, possibly.

donné (m) / donnée (f.)  Donat, holding a type of confraternity.

dos/doarium  Dowry, marriage portion.

dotalicium  Dowry rights.        

douane, see secrete.

drap  Unit of measurement of material.

draparia  Cloth.

drapperius/draperius/trapparius/drapier/draper  Conventual officer in a military order,

        responsible for issuing clothing and material.

drictura/dreiture/droiture  Rights.

drogomannus/durgumannus/drugemannus  Arabic tarjuman, meaning interpreter. The office

        may well descent from that held by a Muslim legal officer, the mutarjim. The

        drogomannus represented the lord in his dealings with the indigenous villagers,

        possibly with oversight of legal disputes.

droiture de l’apaut de laudene  Unknown.

droiture de la tonie  Telonium, possibly.

drugmanagia/drogomanathgium/drugumanagium  Office of drogomannus, often held as

        a feudal sergeantry.

duana  (1) Muslim diwan. (2) Latin secrete.

duana secretorum protonotarius  Official in charge of the secrete in Cilician Armenia.

dunae  Sand dunes.

dux  Military provincial governor in the Byzantine empire. The office was still to be found

        in the principality of Antioch, where it was confined to urban localities and apparently

        only to civil responsibilities.



ecclesia  Church.

ectulus  Perhaps a corruption of edulus [foodstuffs].

edus  Goat.

electus  Bishop-elect

elemosinarius/helemosinarius  Almoner.

engague  Taxes levied on Armenian peasants.

ensis  Sword.

episcopus  Bishop.

equitatio  Mounted raid.

equitaturi  Mounts.

equites  Knights.

esclavi  (1) Slaves. (2) Prisoners-of-war.

esgart/exguardus  Legal case creating a precedent.

estraconi/estracones/estacines  Shops. See statio.

établissement  Law resulting from a formal royal decision.

exactio  Taxation.

exactio curiae  Court fee.

expeditio  Military campaign.

excorticatio  Slaughterhouse.

exenia  Personal gifts from a peasant to the landlord, payable three times a year. See monet.



faber  Smith.

fabricae in quibus sunt frena  Stables.

familia  Household.

familiares  Members of household.

famulus  Servant.

feodales  Feudal rights.

feodatores/feodati  Vassals.

feodum/feudum/fié  Fief.

feodum militis  Knight’s fief.

feodum villanie  Form of villeinage tenure.

ferrarius  Blacksmith.

fidelis          Subject.

fidelitas  Fealty.

filius  Son.

fiscus  Collective term for royal or seigneurial resources.

flumen/flumaria/fluvius  River.

foagium  Hearth tax.

focay  Beer.

focus  Hearth.

fons/fontana  Spring, well.

forbitor  Armourer.

foresterius  Forester.

forifactus Criminal offence.

forner/fornerius/furnier/furner  (1) Oven guardian (2) Baker.

forum  (1) Judicial court. See curia. (2) A market place. See funda.

fossa/fossatum  Ditch, moat.

fovea  Tomb.

francicia/franchisia  Freedom.

francus [pl. franci]/francigena  (1) Term used to describe anyone in the East of western

        European origin. (2) Used with particular reference to a subject of France.

frater  Brother.

frater cliens  (1) Confrater. (2). Brother sergeant of a military order.

fratres cutellorum, see assasini.

frater miles  Brother knight of a military order.

fructus  Produce.

frustrum [actually frustum] terre  A unit of land measurement.


        foncium  (1) An enclosed market. (2) A group of such markets. (3) An office

        administering and collecting taxes from the markets. (4) A court [cour de la fonde],

        judging minor commercial cases.

fonde del vin  Wine market.

furnus  Oven.



gabelles  Tax [but only to be found in early modern inventories].

galea  (1) Galley [ship]. (2) Armour.

galea armata  Armed galley.

galeator  Galley captain or owner.

galio [pl. galiones]  Small galley.

garde  Warden, guardian. See custos.

garet/garitus  Fallow land, partly sown with a nitrogenous crop. Translated by the Venetians

        as mazatica/mazadica/macatica/terra frata.

gastina/guastina/vastina/quastina  (1) Deserted casale. (2) Wasteland.

gastinula  Small gastina.

gener  Relative.

gens/gentes  People or peoples in general.

gentiles  Non-Christians.

gentilis  [adj]  Gentle [as in gentleman].

georgiani  Georgians.

giraudellus  Candelabra, girandole.

gladius  Sword.

glenatores  Gleanings after harvest.

gradus  Staircase.

granerium/grenier  Granary.

grangia  Farm owned by a monastic community.

granum  Wheat.

grant parlement, see curia generalis.

grecus/graecus/grifon  Greek.

grippus  Boat.

guantus  Glove.

gubernator  Governor.



habitatio  Residence

habitator  Inhabitant.

habitus  Dress of the member of a religious community.

hallah  Dedicated bread in Jewish ritual.

harnesium militare  Military equipment.

haute cort  High Court. 

helemosina  Alms.

helemosinarius  Almoner.

herbae  Herbs.

hereditas  Heritable property.

herema loca  Waste land.

heremita  Hermit.

hominium/homagium  Homage.

hominium facere  To pay homage.

hominium ligium  Liege homage.

homo/home  (1) Man. (2) Vassal.

homo ligius/homlige/homolige  (1) Liegeman. (2) Peasant [homlige] residing in the Venetian

        third of the lordship of Tyre.

homo peculiaris  Villein.

honor  (1) Honour. (2) Distinction. (3) Fief.        

hortolanus  Gardener with a heritable holding.

hospitalarius/hospitalier  Hospitaller.

hospitale  Hospital.

hospitatio  Lodging.

hospites  Lodgers.

hospitium/hostel  (1) Hospice. (2) Lodging.

hostes Crucis Christi  Muslims [enemies of Christ’s cross].

hostiarius  (1) Door keeper or porter. (2) Chamberlain.


I & J

jacobitae/iacobini/jacobins  Members of the Jacobite church.

janitor  Janitor, gate-keeper.

jardinum  Garden.

jarra/jarre/jarta  Arabic jarah. Unit of measurement of liquid.

jornata terre  A unit of land measurement.

incisor  Carpenter.

incola  (1) Agricultural settler. (2) Inhabitant.         

infidelis  Non-Christian.

insula domorum  Block of houses.

internuntius  Emissary.

interpres, see drogomannus.

introitus  Entry charges.

judaeus/judeus/jude  Jew.

judex [pl. judices]  Judge in the context of burgenses.

judge delegate  Representative appointed by the papacy to hear an ecclesiastical  case


judicia  Case law.

jugera  Unit of land measurement, possible linked to the carrucata.  

iumentum  Packhorse.

juratus  Jurat of a burgess court.

jurisdictio/juriditio  Jurisdiction.

jus [pl. jura]  Right, privilege.

jus plateaticus  Right to take market taxes.

justa  Unit of measurement of wine.

iusticiarius  Justiciar.

justitia de sangue  Justice of blood, the imposing of capital sentences.



lacus  Lake.

laine  Wool.

lampades  Lamps.

lancea  Lance.

latini  Members of the Latin Church.

laycus conversus, see conversus.

legalitatis et justitie exsecutores  Members of a court.

legati a latere  Legates sent by the pope with specific tasks.

legatus  Emissary with plenipotential powers.

legis peritus  Learned in law.

lengle          Language, nation.

leugua/leuga  League: unit of distance.

levita  Priest.

libera  Free.

libertas  Freedom.

libra/livre  (1) Unit of measurement of weight: a pound. (2) Unit of currency.

ligesse  Liege homage.

ligietas/liggiancia/ligiantia  Liege lordship.

lignum  Boat.

lingua arabica/saracena  The Arabic language. See sarracenice.

litra/littra/listra  Unit of measurement of liquid.

litterae patentes  Deeds.

locum tenens  Lieutenant.

locus  (1) A place. (2) Type of property.

logia/loge  Large building, with a colonnade.

longobardi  Lombards. A term used of the imperial forces in 13th-century Palestine and


lorica  Breastplate.

lunae  Lunettes.



macellarius  Butcher.

macellum  Meat market.

macera/mazara  Press, as for grinding sugar cane.

magister/maistre  Master. (1) Head of a religious order (2) A man with an advanced degree.

        (3) A leading technician. (4) A provincial or local officer in a religious order.

magister castelli  Castellan.

magister clientium S. Sepulcri  Canon responsible for the dependants of the Holy


magister puerorum  Tutor to children.

magister scholasticus/magister scole/magister scholarum/magister clericorum  Master of a

        cathedral school. See also doctor clericorum.

magister secrete  Executive officer in charge [under the seneschal] of the royal treasury.

magister theologus  Master of theology.

magisterium  Mastership.

magnus preceptor/generalis praeceptor  Grand Commander in a military order.

mahnée  Household.

mahomeria/mahumeria/machomeria  Deserted mosque. See bafumaria.

maior/maire  Mayor.

maison  (1) House. (2) Commandery of a military order.

maitre de monnoye  Officer in charge of a mint.

manipulus  Unit of measurement of quantity.

mansio  (1) House (2) Unit of landholding.

mansio domorum  Block of houses.

mapa  Altar cloth.

marbutinus/marabuttinus  Coin. Unit of currency.

marcata  Unit of quantity.

marcha/marca  (1) Mark: coin and unit of currency. (2) Unit of weight.

marcha argenti/marc d’argent  Silver mark.

marcha auri  Gold mark, valued in 1207 at the equivalent of 56 besants.

marchio/marchisus  Marquess.

marciban/marcibanus/marzapanus  (1) Coin and unit of currency. (2) Unit of weight.



maroniti/maronidae  Members of the Maronite church.

masarium/masera  Sugar press.

massa  Staff.

massaratici  Furniture.

matesep  Arabic muhtasib. Official with jurisdiction in commercial matters and having the

        duty of collecting licence fees from shopkeepers, craftsmen and others. He had police

        responsibilities in Cyprus and may have had the same in the kingdom of


mecuchia  Unit of measurement of quantity.

medicus  Doctor.

medii  Medes.

medietas  Land rent of half produce.

mella  Syrup extracted from sugar cane.

mensae nummulariorum  Tables of money changers.

mensurae  Measures.

mensurator ville  Official in charge of weights and measures.

mercator  Merchant.

mercatura  Market tax.

merces/mercimonia  Merchandise.

messis  Harvest.

meta  Boundary mark.

metitus  Unit of measurement of quantity.

metra/mitreta/metreta  Unit of measurement, as of liquid.

mezuzah  Parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah.

mezzina  Unit of measurement of quantity.

miege          Doctor.

miles [pl. milites]  Knight.

miles frater  Brother knight of a military order.

miliarius  Unit of measurement of distance.

militia/milicia  (1) knighthood. (2) A body of knights.

milites feodati  Fief-holding knights.

milites leprosi  Leper knights.

milites stipendarii  Mercenary knights.

minister  Senior officer, administrator.

ministerium  Office.

mirtus  Myrtle.

moabita  Muslim.

modius/muid  Unit of measurement of quantity.

moiture  Milling.

mola  Millstone.

molendinarius  Miller.

molendinum/molin  Mill.

molendinum aque  Water-powered mill.

molendinum equorum/equi  Horse-powered mill.

molendinum olivarum  Olive mill.

monachus/monacus  Monk.

monasterium  Monastery.

monet  Arabic munaʻ. Personal gift from a peasant to the landlord, payable 3 times a year.

        See exenia.

monticulum  Hillock.

mortidatio  Murder.

morus  Mulberry tree. See also arbor morarius.

morvellarii  Mulberry trees, possibly.

mossarins  Muslims.

mulanus  Official (mullah) in charge of the diwan al-mal, the treasury in a Muslim state.

mulier  Woman.

municipium  Castle.

murus  Wall.

must  Grape juice.



navalis exactio  Tax on shipping. See nol.

navis/nef/navigium  Ship.

nazarite  Jew bound by vow to be set apart for the service of God.

negociatores  Merchants.

nepos  Nephew.

nerçi [or verçi]. A type of dye, possibly.

nestoriani/nestorins/nestorini/nestorienses/nestoriti  Members of the Nestorian Church.

nobilis  Noble.

nol  Tax on shipping. See navalis exactio.

notarius  Notary.

noval lands  Lands that were previously uncultivated.

novenarius/novesimus          Property sales tax.

nummularius  Money changer.

nummus  Coin.

nuntius          Emissary.



obedientia  Dependency of religious community or order.

obulus/obolis  Obole: coin and unit of currency.

obulus aureus  Gold obole.

octonarius  Tax on mill production.

oleum fossimani  Unkown.

olfrizium  Decoration on episcopal mitre.

olivetus  Olive grove.

opera lana  Cloth.

opera lini  Linen.

optimas  Magnate.

ordo  Religious order.

ortus/hortus  Garden.

outremer  (1) Europe, when viewed from the Levant. (2) The Levant when viewed from




pactio          Agreement.

pactonarius/pauctonarius/pautonarius  Official in the principality of Antioch, possibly

        responsible for guarding bridges and levying charges.

pactum          Taxation.

paganus  Non-Christian, normally Muslim.

pais  Peace.

palatium/palacium  Palace.

palea  (1) Beds. (2) Gleanings.

palia  Wooden stakes.

pallium  (1) Stole of particular shape and manufacture presented by the popes to

        archbishops. (2) Altar covering. (3) Mantle.

palma  Unit of measurement of length.

panis  Bread.

panitarius/panetarius  Baker.

panni  Cloth.

panssions  Rents.

papuliones  Tents.

paramentum  Parament: decorated robe.

paramentum altaris  Altar frontal.

paria boum  Pair of oxen.

paries  Wall.

pariliata, see jugera.        

parmentarius/palmentirs  Tailor, clothier.

parrochia  Parish.

pars [pl. partes] terre  (1) Share of property (2) Unit of land measurement.

partes ultramarinae/transmarinae  The Levant.

parthus  Parthian.  

particula terre  Small piece of land.

passagium/passage  (1) Time of sailing to the Levant from the West, in spring and autumn.

        (2) Taxation on goods passing through a region.

pastor  Parish priest.

pastura  Pasture.

patriarcha  Patriarch.

patrones  Patrons.

pauper  Poor person.

pecten  Liturgical comb.

pedites  Footsoldiers.

peire  (1) Stone. (2) Millstone.

pelliparius  Furrier.

pellitia  Fur coat.

peregrinus  (1) Pilgrim. (2) Crusader.

persae/persi  Persians.

persona  Parson: rector, parish priest.

pertica          Unit of measurement of land.

pertinentia  Dependency.

pertusis vulpis  Fox hole.

petia/pecia/pettius/pièce  Unit of land measurement.

phisicus/physicus  Physician.

pincerna  Wine steward. See buticularius.

pincernatus  Office of butler and the revenues attached to it.

pinula  Unknown. Possibly a pine cone.

piscaria/pischaria/piscatoria/piscatio/pescherie/pecherie  Fishery.

piscator  Fisherman.

pistrinum  Bakery.

pix  Pitch.

plaga  Urban district.

planeta  Chasuble.

planicies terrae  Flat land.

platearius/placearius/plazarius  Civic judicial officer, whose duties related to the platea.

platea/place  Open space in a city, similar to a piazza.

platea telarum/place de toiles  Cloth market.

plateaticum  Market dues.

plebanus  Parish priest.

plebs  People.

plus dreit heir aparant  Most rightful heir present in the East.

pomerium/pomarium  Apple orchard.

pondera  Weights.

pons  Bridge.

pontifex  Archbishop.

populus  People.

porcharia  piggery.

porta  Gate.

porta magistra  Main Gate.

portator  Gatekeeper, porter.

porticalis  Portal.

portus  Port.

posterula/poterne  Postern.

poteria          Pottery.

potestas  Power.

prastia/prestrie/prestia/prestria  Small village.                

pratum  Meadow

prebenda  Prebend.

precentor/praecentor (m.) / precentrix (f.)  Precentor. See cantor.

preceptor  The title of an officer in the military orders, either (1) holding a senior position in

        the central convent or (2) leading a local community of brothers. See commendator.

preceptor magnus  Grand commander in a military order.

predium  Estate.

preemption  Right of first refusal on sale.

prelatus  (1) Bishop. (2) Venetian official in charge of a third of Tyre.

premium  Additional tax.

prepositus/praepositus/preposicius/prevost  (1) Provost. (2) A leader of a religious

        community. (3) Village headman.

prepositus ultramarinus  Grand Commander in Europe of the Hospital of St John of


presbiter/presbyter  Priest. See sacerdos.

presbyter Iohannes  Prester John.

pressorius/pressoir  Press: for sugar or wine.

presul  Bishop.

pretium  Price.

primicherius  Senior canon in a cathedral chapter.                

princeps (m.) principissa (f.)  Prince, Princess.                

prior (m) / priorissa (f)  (1) Leader of religious community, especially a priory. (2) Chief

        priest in a community of brothers of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem. (3) Lay

        brother holding office of provincial in the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem.

privignus/privingnus  Stepson.

privilegium  Charter.

probi viri/probi homines/viri prudentes/proceres, see boni viri.

procurator (m) / procuratrix (f)  (1) Senior officer or administrator. (2) Legal representative.

procurator operis  Master of works.

procuration  Right to provisions on an episcopal visitation.

proditor  Traitor.

proria  Type of property.

provision  Devolution to the pope or senior churchman of the right to choose an

        incumbent for a benefice.

provisor  Overseer.

pullani/poulains  Second generation Latin settlers.

purification  Religious rite for women after childbirth.

puteus  Well.



quartus  Land rent of a quarter of the produce.

quinquagesimus  Levy on merchants.

quintalia/quintala/quintarium/quintardus/quintaus/quinta/kyntal/kintau  Unit of


quintus  Land rent of one fifth of the produce.

quondam  (1) Deceased (2) Former.



raboinus/rabuinus/robuinus  Arabic rabi’. Coin and unit of currency. Rated at a quarter of a

        besant in 1183.

racemi  Grapes.

raitabiles villani  Villani subject to a rais.

rais/raiz/raicius/rays  Arabic ra’is. (1) Headman of an indigenous village community,

        translated by the Venetians as gastaldio. (2) President of a cour des Syriens.

raisagium  Office of a rais.

rama  Wood.

rapina  Pillage

raptus/rat  Rape.

ravina  Ravine.

rectitudines  Rights.

rector      (1) Parish priest (2) Governor.

redditus  (1) Revenues. (2) Taxation.

regalis moneta  Royal coinage.

regie maiestatis auctoritas  Royal authority.

regina  Queen.

regulus, see rais.

residentia  House.

restor/restitutio  Replacement of horse.

retrais  Supplements to the Rule of the Knights Templar.

rex  (1) King. (2) Rais.

riviera/riberia/riparia  Coast.

rivulum aque  Canal.

robba/rodda  Unit of weight.

rota  Wheel of water mill

rotulum/rotum/rotutum/ritulum/rotula/rote/rota   Unit of measurement.

rubinus  Ruby.

ruella  Small street, passageway or lane.

ruga/ruiga/rua/rue  Street.

ruissel  Watercourse.

rusticus, see villanus.



sacchi  Units of measurement of quantity.

sacerdos  Priest. See presbiter.

sacramentum calumpniae  Oath before testimony in a church court.

sacrista/sacristanus  Sacristan.

sagitarius  Bowman.

saisina  Possession.

salandrus  Fast galley-like ship.

salina  Salt pans.

salma  Unit of weight and measurement of liquid. The equivalent of two Venetian


salvaticus  (1) Bush. (2) Hunter.

samaritanus/samaritan  Samaritan.

samitum  Samite.

sancte crucis vexillum  Relic of the True Cross.

sanctimonialis  Nun.

saracenus/sarracenus/sarrasin  Muslim.

sarracenice  A word expressed in Arabic.

sartus  Building.

satrapus  Satrap.

savonerie/savoneria  Soapworks.

scapuli  Swordsmen.

scaranni  Bandits employed by Christians against Muslims.

scriba  (1) Scribe. (2) Official, descendant of the Muslim katib, in a revenue-bearing

        department, such as a city gate, cathena, funda. (3) Official responsible for the

        collection of revenues and for drawing land boundaries in the countryside.

scribanus  A scriba [in category 3] holding office as a sergeantry in feudal tenure.

scribania/scribanagium  Office of a scribanus.

scriptor  Scribe, charter writer.

scutifer  Shield bearer, squire.

scutum  Shield.

secatores segetum  Threshings after harvest.

secretarius/secrétaire  (1) Confidential assistant. (2) Official in the secrete.

secrete  Central or local treasury and accounting office.

sella  Saddle.

sellarius  Saddler.

sendatum  Silk cloth.

senescalcus  Seneschal. See dapifer.

septa  Urban district.

sepulcrarius  Canon in a cathedral chapter responsible for burials.

sera  Lock.

serica/seta  Silk.

serventus  Servant.

servicium/servitium  (1) Service in general. (2) The obligation of service under contract,

        feudal or otherwise.

servicium dominium  Feudal service.

serviens [pl. servientes]  (1) Servant. (2) Sergeant, as in brother sergeant of a military order.

servitus  Obligation, such as payment of rent.

servus/serf  (1) Slave. (2) Serf. Rarely, if at all, used of a villanus in Palestine and Syria.

sigillum  Seal.

sindicus  Syndic.

sine precio vel munere  Freed from payment of duty.

sire  Lord.

skifatus  Unit of currency.

socer  Father-in-law.

societas  Company.

socius  Companion.

solarium  (1) Upper chamber. (2) Upper storey.

solidarius  Mercenary.

solidus/sou  Unit of currency. On third of a raboinus in 1254.

somarii/summerii/sommiers  Pack animals.

soma/saoma  Unit of quantity, as in the load carried by a pack animal.

sororius  Brother-in-Law.

soudoyer  Mercenary.

spacium  Area of land.

spina  Wall.

spolia  (1) Booty. (2) Element in parish revenue.

stabulae/stabularia/stabulum  Stables.

stacionarius  Shopkeeper.

stagium  Residential obligation of Cypriot peasants.

stagnum  Water reservoir.

statera  Scales.

statera, pensae, modia et mensurae  Weights and measures.

statio [pl. stationes] / stacio  Shop.

stipendarius  (1) Wage earner. (2) Mercenary.

strata  Street.

studia scholastica  Education.

sub-cantor  Sub-cantor.

sub-diaconus  Subdeacon.

subditus  Subject.

sub-prior/supprior  Sub-prior.

sub-thesaurarius  Sub-treasurer

succentor/subcentor  Succentor.

surianus/sirius/syrus/syrius/syrianus/surien/suliani/syriacus  Indigenous Orthodox

        Christian who follows an Arabic liturgy.

sutor  Cobbler.



taberna  Tavern.

tablagium  Probably a levy on money-changing.

tabulae cambii  Booths of money changers.

talenta  Money.

tallia/talia  Tax.

taneria/teneria/tanarie/tanerie  Tannery.

tanerius  Tanner.

tarida  Merchant and passenger ship, propelled by both oars and sails.

tarsana  Arsenal [in Acre]. See arsena.

tartari  Mongols.

teloneum/thelonaria/tholoneum  Tax.

tenementum  Tenement.

tentoria  (1) Tents. (2) Dye works.

teneuri  Tenures.

tercia  Third of produce paid by Greek peasants on Cyprus.

terciaria/tersiaria/tertianaria/tercenaria  Tax on a ship’s passengers and crew.

terra candida  Chalk

terra cannamelae  Sugar cane plantation.

terragium, see carrage.

terrarius  Landowner.

terraticum, see carrage.

terre ultramarina  The Levant.

testaria  Brick kiln.

texarini  Dye workers.

texta  Gospel books.

textor inscriptionis  Charter writer.

theatrum  Roman theatre.

theoricus  Physician.

thesaurarius/tessaurarius/tesaurarius  Treasurer.

thesaurus  Treasury.

tithes  Church tax of one-tenth of the produce, paid annually.

tolum  Rotunda.

torcular  Wine press.

tornator  Carpenter.

toron/turonium/turon/torronum  Hill.

traditio mortis  Death sentence.

trebucheta  Trebuchet.

treve  Truce.

tributalis consuetudo  Customary tax.

tributus  (1) Tax. (2) Tribute.

trivia  Town square.

tuazo  Tax on pork butchers in Tyre.

tuctor  Guardian.

tuguria  Castle.

tumba  Memorial.

turcopolus/tricopulus/turcopler/turroplus  Turcopole.

turcus  Turk.

turnonenses  Pounds tournois.

turribalum  Thurible.

turris  Tower.

turris perforata  Gate tower.


U & V

vadimonia  Pledges.

vadum  Ford.

vallet    Squire.

vassellus/vassallus/vasa/vaisellus  Ship.

vastina, see gastina.

vavassor  Vassal.

vectigale  Carriage, tax.

venator  Huntsman.

venella  Alleyway.

vetulus Assideorum/vetus dominus Assyriorum/vetus de Monte/vetulus Montanus/vetus de

        mussa  Leader of the sect of the Assassins.

vexillum  Banner.

vexillum Balzanum  Banner of the Knights Templar.

vexillum beati Petri  Papal banner.

via  Road, street.

via publica  Public way.

via regia  Royal way.

viator  Traveller.

vicarius  Vicar: an ecclesiastical or lay person holding office at will of appointer.

vicaria  Office of vicar.

vice-cancellarius  Vice-chancellor .

vicecomes/vicomte (m.) / vicecomitissa (f.)  Viscount, Viscountess.

vicecomitia  Viscounty.

viculus  Lane.

vicus  (1) A street  (2) Urban quarter.

vidimus  Confirmation of a charter after a visual inspection.

villa  Village.

villania  Villeinage tenure.

villanus/vilain/villain (m.) / villaine (f)  Villein.

vindemia  Vintage, wine harvest.

vineola  Small vineyard.

vinum cervese  Beer.

vir  Man.

virgultum  (1) Woodland, plantation. (2) Unit of land measurement.

viri militares  Knights.

viridarium/verger  Fruit or vegetable garden.

vir religiosus  Member of a religious community.

vitrarius  Glass maker.

vitricus  Lay church official.

vitrum/vitreum  Glass.

uncia  Unit of measurement of weight.

volta/vauta/arvoltus  (1) Vault, undercroft. (2) Warehouse.

volta scura  Closed vault.

vrequinnus ad racemos decalcandos  Wine press.

usances  Customs.

usaticum  Customary tax.

usus et consuetudines  (1) Customary dues and obligations. (2) Customary laws.

usus et institutiones  Custom and practice.



xenodochium/xenodoche  Hospital.



ypotecarius  Shopkeeper selling spices and other merchandise. See apotheca.



zaribel  Unknown [corrupted word in a forgery].

zuchar/zucarum  Sugar.


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